From Yesterday To Today, Artvin
From Yesterday To Today, Artvin
In this article we will tell the history of Artvin, who conquered hearts with his natural beauties, in the taste of a fairy tale from yesterday to today. Besides, there's no other way to think about it, because the history of this city is a fairy tale. So without further ado, let's get started.
Because this natural wonder city has little(!) rugged structure, extensive archaeological excavations could not be carried out much, but the first known guests showed their presence between 3000 and 4000 BC. The Hurrians were the first to dominate the city. The Hurrians, who established a site state in Artvin and its environs in 2000 BC, placed their traditions and cultures in these lands until the arrival of the Hittites in 1360 BC. The Hittites who came after 20 years of domination to the city, but then Urartu came and this beautiful city did not go to the Hittites.
As time went on, the city of Artvin's natural splendor spread in epic proportions. When the Scythians stopped, they came in great migrations, raided and took the city from the hands of the Urartu. Artvin first started to be used as a military base during this period because of its geopolitical position, this city was a unique Indian fabric for the regions where the Scythians spread. Anyway, sir, let's not go too far, we have a long way to go. After the Scythians, a family known as Arsaks came and dominated the entire city. The Arsaks, who have shamanism, thus became the community that first acclimated the people of Artvin to the belief in monotheism. Thus, when the city came under Byzantine influence in 350 BC, it became quite easy for them to accept the religion of Christianity.
What about the Islamic period? Now that the Caspian Turks came to this region in 575 BC and established dominance along the Çoruh River. Later, Habib son of Mesleme, the commander of the Islamic armies, came and defeated Byzantium and captured Ardanuç, Shavshat and Artvin. Although the citizens of Artvin who joined with the Umayyads resisted the Islamic armies, in 786 the Abbasid Caliph Harun Reşid connected Çoruh and its surroundings to Baghdad, which was the capital of the Abbasids at that time. Between the year 853 and 1023, two principalities named Sac and Bagrats were established depending on the Abbasids in Artvin, but when Sac collapsed, the region came under Byzantine rule again.
The dusty pages of history went forward for a few years, the history shows the year 1064 and the second Sultan of Anatolian Seljuks State, Alparslan, came on stage and conquered Georgia and the Çoruh tribes. When Alparslan died, the city was taken by Byzantium again in 1081, the Seljuk ruler Sultan Melikshah re-took the region. Melikşah Bayburt, who was not satisfied with this, founded the Saltuklu Principality based in Kars and Erzurum, and thus increased the population rate of the Turks in Artvin.
In later periods, when the Anatolian Seljuks State collapsed, Artvin passed to the ildeniz son of Azerbaijan, but the Mongol emperor Kublai Khan entered the lands and made this place Ilhanlı land, and the Sarklar being Kipchak Turks came and established the Çıldır Atabeg.
Artvin, who had changed hands many times but had not lost a bit of his natural beauty, was thus under the rule of mainly Turkish and Turkic rulers. II. Mehmet-we know him more as Sultan Mehmet The Conqueror for conquering Istanbul-the city that came under Ottoman rule in the time of the I.Selim period, Hopa became a city that spread over a much wider geography with the connection of Borçka and Artvin.
Time has passed, days have been weeks, weeks have been months, and they have chased centuries. Thus, Artvin remained under the rule of the Ottoman Empire for 250 years. Until the Ottoman-Russian war in 1828. At that time, Ahiska came out of Ottoman hands with the Treaty of Edirne. Naturally, the state agency is broken. As part of the deal, she gave part of the province to the Russians. On the other hand, Artvin, Borçka, Ardanuç, Şavşat and Yusufeli were the remaining places in their hands.
It was not long ago that the Ottoman-Russian war of 1877-78 (War 93) began. On 24 April of the same year, Russia invaded Kars, Ardahan and Batumi and immediately started to advance towards Turkish territory. On 2 May 1877, more than 800 Turkish soldiers were also killed. During this time, the people of Artvin against the Russians who had taken the vicinity of Ardahan started to migrate towards Şavşat and Ardanuç.
After the Russians advanced inland, the Ottomans were forced to offer peace. On March 3, 1878, the famous Treaty of Ayastefanos, consisting of 29 articles, was signed between the Ottomans and Russia. 245.207.301 gold in the 19. article, the Ottoman Empire did not pay the gold compensation, Kars, Ardahan and Batumi lands had to give compensation to Russia. The Treaty of Berlin was signed on December 23, 1878, at the thought of this peace contrary to the interest of European states.
By 1924, all the sanjaks in the state of the Republic of Turkey, which is now a republic country, were converted into provinces. As a result, Artvin was also considered a province.